What is pile foundation in Construction?
Pile Foundation is suitable for buildings that are planted on areas with soft soil layers. Requires piles to transfer weight to solid soil layers deep in each area. The depth of the solid soil layer is not the same, such as in the Bangkok area. There will be a depth of solid soil layer about 17-23 m, which means the length of the piles that support each area. by needle foundation Can also be divided into two types of piles that support another major type:
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– Short pile foundation (Friction Pile) is a foundation that does not bear much weight. and constructed on soft soil, such as general residential buildings built in the central region bearing the weight of the pile Will rely on the friction Friction of soil that sticks around the pile only. Short pile length that is convenient for general operation It will have a length of about 6-16 meters. If the length is not more than 6 meters, it can be labored and hammered into it. If the length is more than 6 meters, a crane must be used as a hammer.
– Long pile foundation, Bearing Pile is a foundation that must bear a lot of weight. and construction on soft soil such as office buildings Industrial plants, hotels, shopping malls, etc., the weight bearing of this long pile. Must rely on both soil friction and weight bearing at the end of the bearing pile, which reaches the sand layer at a depth of 21 meters or more. The length of the pile, which is more than 21 meters, is in practice divided into 2 the rod, and then slowly hammer it down with a crane. which must always be approved by the design engineer and the use of two pieces It may cause problems of piles moving apart later. may result in subsidence as well.
Once you understand the different types of foundations, In making the foundation, special attention should be paid to the selection of the foundation according to the condition of the soil and the site as mentioned above. And should use materials in construction according to engineering drawings strictly, not cutting the size of the cement used to make the foundation because it is directly related to strength. The use of mortar should only be used for structural mortar (Portland Cement #1). It is recommended to use Type 1 Portland Cement only. In general, sacks are red or in artisan language, known as “red cement”, which is more expensive than plaster, but if the foundation collapses, it will cause considerable damage to the house or building. which is difficult to fix at the mixing ratio. Cement : Sand : Stone used in foundation work. Must be as specified in the assembly list of each brand of cement for maximum efficiency.
As for the foundation making process, in the first step, coarse concrete should be poured over the top of the soil before pouring. The pile should be cleaned and used fiber to decorate the needle to a level before pouring the coarse concrete (Tileen Lean) to be a model. and prevent dirt in the foundation concrete and allow the pile to emerge about 5 cm from the coarse concrete to ensure that the foundation transfers force into the pile
When the lean concrete is poured, then make a foundation steel grating form. After that, use mortar balls to support the steel grating on both the bottom and sides (about 5 cm) so that the cement can cover all the steel before pouring should make the area to be poured with moisture, preventing soil from absorbing water from the concrete, which will make concrete. Reduce the strength and have to clean, check the size of the reinforcement correctly, check the size of the formwork. Strength and cleanliness, make sure before pouring that there are no loose mud or sand deposits on it. And during pouring, the concrete must be rammed by hand or with a vibrator to prevent cavities or voids in the concrete. and should be inspected and controlled according to engineering principles
Lean is coarse concrete used for pouring on leveled ground. To form concrete bases, foundation beams, floors, or parts of the house structure that come into contact with the ground, Lean helps prevent soil and other contaminants. Mixed with concrete foundations and earth beams, thus making the concrete structure strong and efficient.
Mortar balls are cement mixed with sand and water to form a lump. Used to support the reinforcing steel not to stick to the formwork. This is the construction of Concrete Covering distance so that the poured concrete can cover all the reinforcement. Prevent moisture and air which causes rust to come in contact with the reinforcement. This makes the concrete can bear the weight with full efficiency.